Applying and Troubleshooting Predefined Settings
Applying and Troubleshooting Predefined Settings
Applying and Troubleshooting Predefined Settings
Configuring a specific toolbar layout, setting a region-specific language, disabling automatic updates—these are just a few of many reasons IT might want to configure predefined application settings. Unfortunately, this is not always a simple task. Software vendors store configuration data in a variety of locations, and various packaging and deployment technologies have their own methods for customizing application settings.
VMware User Environment Manager provides an easy and consistent way to apply and enforce predefined settings for all your Windows applications. For this tutorial, we used the Application Profiler tool to capture these settings.
VLC Media Player as the Profiled Application
For this exercise, we profile a popular video playback application called VLC Media Player, capture specific application settings, and configure these settings as predefined settings, to be applied when an end user launches the application. We also explore troubleshooting techniques as needed.
Machine Configuration for Profiling and Deployment
Installing Application Profiler and performing the initial profiling process is outside the scope of this tutorial. It is well documented in the VMware User Environment Manager Application Profiler Administration Guide. To get an evaluation environment up and running quickly, see the Quick-Start Tutorial for VMware User Environment Manager.
This tutorial focuses on the advanced scenario of troubleshooting a profiled application.
The following section describes the configuration used to profile VLC. For a comprehensive list of supported operating systems for Application Profiler, see the VMware User Environment Manager Application Profiler Administration Guide.
Application Packaging and Profiling Machine Configuration (Profiling VM)
The application packaging and profiling machine (also called the profiling VM) was configured with the following:
- Windows 10 Anniversary Update (AU) VM.
- VMware App Volumes™ Agent version 2.12.
- VMware User Environment Manager Application Profiler version 9.1.
svc-profilerdomain account has local administrative privileges.
The App Volumes Agent is an optional component, and is part of the VMware End-User-Computing JMP Solution. This agent was included so the same VM could be used to build an App Volumes AppStack for application deployment and to profile the application for personalization with User Environment Manager. If you would like to learn more, or include App Volumes in your environment, refer to the Reviewer's Guide for VMware App Volumes.
End-User Machine Configuration
The end-user machine in this example had the following configuration:
- Windows 10 AU instant-clone VM.
- VMware App Volumes Agent version 2.12.
- VMware User Environment Manager FlexEngine version 9.1.
jspenceruser account is a standard end-user domain account.
Profiling the VLC Media Player Application
VLC Media Player version 2.2.4 was captured to an App Volumes AppStack using all default installation options. The AppStack was then used to deliver VLC to the profiling VM. During the User Environment Manager application-profiling process, the View > Playlist setting was selected for the default view.
Note: Playlist is the item selected. Docked Playlist is a default setting, independent of Playlist.
Upon completion of the profiling process, we saw that the configuration change was written to the file system, in the
Selecting Config File with Predefined Settings from Application Profiler produced four files:
INI- User Environment Manager configuration file containing the import and export locations. This file defines the parameters for User Environment Manager to manage the application.
ICO- Icon used by User Environment Manager Management Console and the Self-Support Tool.
FLAG- Flag file for FlexEngine, when DirectFlex is enabled (default).
ZIP- File containing predefined user settings.
We recommend modifying the Default Save Path setting so that saved files are automatically added to User Environment Manager.
While you may be tempted to open and edit the
ZIP file directly from Windows Explorer, it is critical that the Edit Profile Archive button be used instead. User Environment Manager uses the standard
ZIP file format to prevent the creation of proprietary file formats, but the writes to and reads from the
ZIP files are optimized for performance. Using tools outside of User Environment Manager to edit these
ZIP files makes them unreadable by FlexEngine (the User Environment Manager agent).
By editing the profile archive, we can browse the contents and make changes as needed.
Notice that VLC uses an
INI file to record the user settings. When View > Playlist was selected during application profiling,
playlist-visible=true was recorded in the
INI. However, there are a number of additional settings that were automatically recorded in the
When configuring predefined application settings, you might notice that user settings that are stored in an
INI file might result in different behavior than user settings stored in registry keys. We will come back to predefined settings later in this tutorial.
Next, we ran the application-profiling process again for VLC. This time, View > Playlist was selected, and Tools > Preferences > Menus Language was configured for French.
When the profiling process was complete, we saw that the configuration changes were written to the file system, in the
%AppData%\vlc folder, and to the registry, in
Editing the profile archive this time, we can see both the AppData and Registry folders.
Though not a common practice, this version of VLC Media Player stores the language setting in the registry, while storing a variety of other user settings in an
Configuring and Applying Predefined Settings
To configure and apply the predefined settings, we use the User Environment Manager Management Console.
The VMware User Environment Manager Administration Guide provides a detailed description of the four types of predefined settings you can choose from. For our purposes, we configured VLC Media Player predefined settings to Partially Enforced Settings. Partially enforced settings are applied after the user profile archive has been imported. This effectively merges the user's personal settings with the partially enforced settings. In case of a conflict, the partially enforced settings win and overwrite the user's personal settings.
To test our configuration, we logged in to an instant-clone desktop in as
jspencer. The same App Volumes AppStack that was used to deliver VLC to the application-packaging VM was used to dynamically deliver VLC to the VM at login time. When VLC Player was launched for the first time, the menus were in French, and the interface was configured for Playlist view, as expected.
While logged in as
jspencer, the following settings were modified.
- The Playlist view was disabled.
- The language was changed to American English.
- All check boxes on this preferences page were cleared.
Based on the way the Partially Enforced Settings option is designed to behave, we expected the following behavior the next time VLC was opened by
- The menus should be in French and the Playlist view should be enabled. This is because both settings were configured during application profiling, and applied as partially enforced predefined settings.
- The check boxes cleared on the preferences page should remain cleared. This is because these settings are not specified by the predefined settings, and are therefore user settings that are stored in the user profile archive.
After closing and re-opening the application, we saw that all of the changes were discarded, including the check boxes on the preferences page. This is not what we expected!
But why did this happen?
We are seeing the result of an application storing its user settings in an
INI file. To understand this, let us look at the workflow when a user logs in to a Windows desktop with User Environment Manager enabled.
- User logs in.
- User profile archive, including any custom user settings, is imported to Windows.
- Predefined application settings are imported to Windows.
User Environment Manager behaves differently during Step 3, depending on whether the application settings are stored in the registry or in an
User Environment Manager can parse individual registry settings. You might think of this as merging only the specified, predefined registry keys to the Windows registry. In our test case, only the language setting is forced on the end user by the predefined application settings registry import. Any other user settings that happen to get recorded in
HKCU\Software\VideoLAN are preserved for the end user. This enables IT to enforce specific application settings, while granting the end user flexibility to customize and preserve any other settings.
When applications store configuration data in files (
XML, or others), User Environment Manager can only overwrite the entire file. In our test case, the Playlist view predefined setting is stored in an
INI file. That file is part of the predefined applications settings that are applied after the user profile archive is imported. The user
jspencer made several changes (cleared check boxes) to the preferences page, which were stored in that same
INI file. Going back to the previous workflow, the problem becomes apparent.
- User logs in.
- User profile archive, including the
INIfile customized per the user settings, is imported to Windows.
- Predefined application settings, including a copy of the
INIfile created during the application-profiling process, overwrites the
INIfile imported in Step 2.
Another Issue with Text Files
Even though the user
jspencer might be logged in to the end-user VM, if we examine the VLC application settings
INI file, we see a value that includes the user name of the account (
svc-profiler) that was used during the application-profiling process.
The intended behavior is for this line to be populated with the user name of the currently logged-in user, which is
jspencer in this case.
User Environment Manager supports using placeholders to accommodate variables in text files.
Editing the profile archive allows us to modify the text file manually. In this case, the user name
jspencer is replaced with the system variable
%username%. See the VMware User Environment Manager Administration Guide for proper syntax and usage.
jspencer runs the application, the user name is properly reflected in the
The following is a brief summary of the application-profiling concepts and practices covered in this section, which you can apply to your own applications.
- Always use the Application Profiler or the User Environment Manager tools to edit a profile archive
- Applications might store user settings in the registry, in files, or both. Taking the time to fully understand the way your application behaves (know thine app) will ensure successful application profiling.
- When applications store user settings in an
INIfile, the intended behavior of partially enforced predefined settings might change.
- When applications store user settings in a file, values from the profiling VM or profiling user account might be preserved in the predefined application settings. Placeholders enable the use of system variables to address this possibility.